Competition law includes the law of unfair competition (fair trading law) and the law against restraints on trade (antitrust law). In Germany, competition law is based on the UWG (Act against Unfair Competition) and the GWB (Act against Restraints of Competition).
Acts undertaken by a competitor that violate usual commercial practices and that may disadvantage other competitors fall under the restrictions of the Act against Unfair Competitorn. Usually only competitors have the right to take action. There are, however, exceptions such as consumer organisations and competition watchdogs, who may sue on behalf of the pubic.
The Act against restraints of competiton protects general business practice. The act aims to ensure free competition as such, and to prevent monopolies and restrictive or irregular practices by competitors. Here again, usually only the affected competitors have the right to take action. In addition, supervisory authorities (antitrust authorities) have their own rights to intervene in business practices.